LAWYERS' DIRECTORY
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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

What are preferential shares?
Preferential shares can be created by virtue of a decision of an extraordinary general meeting, giving their owners preferential rights over material benefits only.
Can I amend any specification or claim after the issuance of my patent certificate?
No, you can't amend any specification or claim after the issuance of the patent certificate.
What is the Nice Classification system?
The Nice Classification (NCL) is an international classification of goods and services applied for the registration of marks. The Nice Classification assigns goods to Classes 1 to 34, and services to Classes 35 to 45. Each class is represented by a class heading, which gives general information about the type of goods or services covered.
Is it a requirement to have a local company in Lebanon to register under com.lb?
Yes, to apply for a .COM.LB domain the requester should provide his Lebanese Commercial Registration documents (i.e. the company requesting the domain should have an officially recognized operation in Lebanon).
As an investor, can I ask the startup for an annual report?
Yes, you can.
What happens if several persons individually create the same invention?
If several persons individually make the same invention, the right to the patent should be entitled to the first applicant.
What events lead to the dissolution of my joint stock company?

The following events lead to the dissolution of your joint stock company:
• The end of the company’s duration in the article of association
• The execution of the anticipated project for which the company was established or if it be-comes impossible to achieve such project
• A decision of the shareholders at an extraordinary general meeting, whereby at least 1/3 of the capital of the company is represented and the decision is made by the majority of the votes of the shareholders present or represented
• The loss of 3/4 of the company capital (provided that the capital is fully paid) and an extraor-dinary general meeting decision to dissolve the company
How should the capital of the limited liability company be deposited?
The capital of a limited liability company should be deposited in full at an accredited bank, in the company's name, in a private account carrying the company's name followed by "currently being established". The capital amount should be held in custody at the bank, pending the company's final establishment (i.e. after the registration procedures at the commercial register are completed).
Can one trademark application cover more than one class of goods/services?
Yes, it can.
How can I open a branch of a Lebanese company if the company is in Lebanon?
• The following documents are required to open a branch of a Lebanese entity in Lebanon:
- A request form filed by the person or her legal agent
- Clearance from the National Social Security giving capacity to register a branch for a merchant or a company
- For companies, minutes of a general assembly meeting signed by the legal signatory and the shareholders, where a decision was taken to open a branch

• The procedure takes approximately 48 hours and includes:
- For merchants:
✓ Filing a request form with the commercial register in the department where the branch is to be opened:
o the applicant should mention the decision taken to open the branch (minutes of general assembly meeting), and
o the applicant should mention the branch address
✓ Filling a form to be registered as a merchant whereby the new branch is mentioned
✓ Signing the request by the signatory at the commercial register
✓ The merchant obtaining a certified copy
- For corporations:
✓ Registering the minutes of the general assembly meeting at the commercial register
✓ The general manager or her legal agent obtaining a certified copy
What documents are required to incorporate a limited partnership?
In order to incorporate a limited partnership, you need to submit the following documents:
• A written deed (defining dividends as well as general and silent partners) to be signed by all partners
• A copy of the partnership agreement to be filed with the relevant court of first instance registrar and registered with the commercial register
Who can register a domain name in Lebanon?
The company owning the domain name should have a legal local presence in Lebanon, practicing in Lebanon, and have a number in the commercial registry. If this condition is not available, then the only way to achieve registration is by a specific authorization to register the domain name in the name of a local legal entity.
How is a joint stock company taxed?
Joint Stock companies are taxed at a rate of 15% on generated net profits and 10% on distribution of dividends (Capital Gain Tax).
What if a change occurs to my pending trademark application (such as a change of name, address, merger, assignment)?
You cannot make such changes to pending trademark applications.
Are judicial decisions protected by copyright law?
No, they are not.
Can I file more than one design in the same application?
Yes, you can.